Not to be confused with Libertarianism
Anarchism is a political ideology based upon the opposition to hierarchy. It's prime principles is the elimination of compulsory government, capitalism, and in most forms, the cishetero-patriarchy.
Anarchist views vary, however within the historical examples and origins, anarchism is a socialist ideology, and Anarcho-Capitalism is not considered a form of anarchism. Examples of anarchist forms include, Anarcho-communism, Anarcho-collectivism, Egoism, and Anarcho-syndicalism
History of Anarchism
Some have claimed that some Taoist works have Anarchist themes in them. Modern Anarchism sprung from the Enlightenment. Jean--Jacques Rousseau's arguments for moral centrality of freedom influenced Anarchist thought to some extent. The first modern Anarchist, by historians, is seen as William Godwin. His views where that "government by its very nature counteracts the improvement of original mind,". Godwin did not approve of the idea of a violent means for Anarchy but rather a steady fall into it. He also advocated extreme individualism and thought that any discrimination on any basis other then ability was wrong.
In the 1800s the first man to call himself an Anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Proudhon is often seen as the founder of modern Anarchist theory. He proposed the idea of "Spontaneous order" where organization emerges, but without any central authority figures. e saw anarchy as "a form of government or constitution in which public and private consciousness, formed through the development of science and law, is alone sufficient to maintain order and guarantee all liberties. In it, as a consequence, the institutions of the police, preventive and repressive methods, officialdom, taxation, etc., are reduced to a minimum.
Alongside Prouhon, theorists such as Max Stirner and Mikhail Bakunin were largely influential and inspired the following Anarchist Movement. During the First international, following arguments, the anarchist organizations split from the Statist, or Marxist, branches of socialism. During the latter half of the 19th century Anarchism climbed in popularity, becoming the dominant form of socialism. New theorists such as Emma Goldman and Pyotr Kropotkin became hugely influential and directly inspired the upcoming anarchist societies. During this period, many insurrectionary anarchists, particularly egoists, engaged in crimes and assassinations throughout European and the United States. Because of this, Anarchists began to be associated with criminality earning both a stigma, and later a double meaning in the common lexicon. This resulted in mass persecution of anarchists, such as the famous Chicago Haymarket affair, in which following a bomb explosion at a strike, 7 anarchists were arrested and sent to death without evidence.
In the early 19th century anarchism continued to hold popularity, however were stagnating. During the Russian revolution, the anarchists played a notable role. However once the October revolution came, and the authoritarian Leninists took over, most anarchists stopped trying to work on reforming the government. During the anarchist civil war, Ukrainian anarchists created the anarchist society known as the Free territory, more commonly referred to by the name Mahknovia, named after the commander of the 'Black Army', Nestor Mahkno, the blacks are also dubbed Mahknovists. The territory was an autonomous confederation for 3 years, with varying size including a large portion or even shortly the majority of Ukraine. It had a reluctant alliance with the Red army, and was vital to fighting White army cossacks in ukraine and the caucuses. However, following large desecrations of red army soldiers to the blacks, the Bolsheviks led propaganda campaigns against the anarchists, alleging that they were counter-revolutionary, not in fact democratic and Mahkno was a warlord. The red army invaded and mass killed anarchists and their families, with the remainder hard anarchists, retreating, regressing, or fleeing the country. Later, anarchism, alongside any non marxist-leninist ideology, was banned within the soviet union and many anarchists were jailed, killed, and/or repressed in the state.
Following the soviet union's rise, both by force and through influence, Leninism, later Marxist leninsm, became the dominant form of 'socialism' around the world, overtaking anarchism. However despite this anarchism continued to achieve various societies and advancements, most famously in the Spanish anarchist societies, achieved for a prolonged period during the spanish civil war, until succumbing to fascist destruction alongside soviet-sponsored attacks against them. After ww2, anarchism heavily dwindled in numbers. However in the modern day the ideology has seen a modicum of resurgence, likes of Murray Boockin and Abdullah Öcalan inspiring libertarian socialism and societies such as Rojava.