Castroism is based on the ideas and Marxist theories engineered by Che Guevara and Raúl Castro and Fidel Castro, leaders of the Cuban Revolution. Like all Leninists, Castroists believe that the bourgeois capitalist state must be overthrown in order to create a socialist alternative. But instead of leading the masses through a vanguard party (Lenin’s view), they believe in "focoism", a Populist-based theory that acts of guerilla warfare, restricted terrorism, and heroic actions taken by a small band of warriors against the establishment will inspire the masses to join them.

Nationalization of all foreign businesses and redistributing the land is a tenet of Castroism as evidenced when the Cuban revolutionaries kicked US businesses out of Cuba. Before Castro came to power 70% of Cuban land was owned by foreigners. Castro laid out agrarian reform which redistributed the land, including the Castro families, among the working class. The US oil companies were then nationalised by the Cuban revolutionaries. The US responded by cutting much of their sugar quota from Cuba. In a counter response all US businesses and eventually all businesses were nationalized. All surplus gained by Cuban companies goes directly back to the people through universal healthcare and universal education until doctoral degrees.

Under Castro's' leadership Cuban literacy rates have reached just under 100% compared to below 40% before the revolution. A quarter of all primary school teachers have a masters degree and half of all primary school teachers have spent 5 years minimum in third level education.Cuba has the highest patient doctor ratio in the world.

Equality of sex and races is a major tenet of Castroism, hailed by Nelson Mandela as a hero when Mandela made his first trip to a foreign nation as South African president, he thanked and praised Castro for helping to end apartheid. He had done so by sending to Cuban army to Angola to defeat the apartheid South African government who attempted a takeover after the Angolan civil war. He gave special permission to a Kosher butcher to remain open to this day in order to support the Jewish Cuban community and distributes passover food to the small Jewish minority.


On the island of Grenada, Maurice Bishop, leader of the New JEWEL Movement and follower of a non-violent form of Castroism, succeeded in producing a bloodless coup on the island and overthrowing the British imperialists. In the US, the largest Castroist party today is the Socialist Workers Party (SWP). Almost every Communist and Socialist party in the United States (to a certain degree) respects the Cuban government. Current Venezuela's government headed by Hugo Chávez is another good example of Castroism.